Organ-Organ Pernapasan Pada Manusia Lengkap Dengan Gambar dan Pembahasannya

Organ-Organ Pernapasan Pada Manusia Lengkap Dengan Pembahasannya - Sistem pernapasan manusia memiliki organ-organ pernapasan yang menunjang proses pernapasan. Organ-organ pernapasan manusia tersebut memiliki struktur dan fungsi yang berbeda-beda. Kali ini saya akan membahas tentang macam-macam organ-organ pernapasan manusia, jenis-jenis alat pernapasan pada manusia, bagian organ pernapasan pada manusia, struktur dan fungsi organ-organ pernapasan manusia seperti hidung, faring, laring, trakea, bronkus dan alveous. Simak pembahasan lengkapnya berikut ini:

Organ-Organ Pernapasan Pada Manusia dan Pembahasannya

1. Hidung


Hidung merupakan alat pernapasan pertama yang dilalui oleh udara. Ujung hidung ditunjang oleh tulang rawan dan pangkal hidung ditunjang oleh tulang nasalis. Kedua tulang hidung menghubungkan rongga hidung dengan atmosfer untuk mengambil udara.

Rongga hidung tersusun atas sel-sel epitel berlapis pipih dengan rambut-rambut kasar. Rambut-rambut kasar tersebut berfungsi menyaring debu-debu kasar. Rongga hidung tersusun atas sel-sel epitel berlapis semu bersilia yang memiliki sel goblet. Sel goblet merupakan sel penghasil lendir yang berfungsi menyaring debu, melekatkan kotoran pada rambut hidung, dan  mengatur suhu udara pernapasan. Sebagai indra pembau, pada atap atau rongga hidung terdapat lobus olfaktorius yang mengandung sel-sel pembau.

2. Faring


Udara setelah melewati rongga hidung akan masuk ke faring. Faring merupakan saluran penghubung antara rongga hidung dan tenggorokan dengan panjang kurang lebih 12,5�13 cm. Faring terdiri atas tiga bagian yakni nasofaring, orofaring, dan laringofaring. Faring  merupakan pertemuan antara saluran pernapasan dan saluran pencernaan. Oleh karena itu, ketika menelan makanan, suatu katup (epiglotis) akan menutup saluran pernapasan (glotis) sehingga makanan akan masuk ke saluran pencernaan.

3. Laring

Setelah melewati faring, udara akan menuju laring. Laring sering disebut sebagai kotak suara karena di dalamnya terdapat pita suara. Laring adalah suatu saluran yang dikelilingi oleh sembilan tulang rawan. Salah satu dari sembilan tulang rawan tersebut adalah tulang rawan tiroid yang berbentuk menyerupai perisai. Pada laki-laki dewasa, tulang rawan tiroid lebih besar daripada wanita sehingga membentuk apa yang disebut dengan jakun.

4. Trakea

Setelah dari laring, udara akan masuk ke dalam trakea. Trakea disebut juga �pipa angin� atau saluran udara. Trakea memiliki panjang kurang lebih 11,5 cm dengan diameter 2,4 cm. Trakea tersusun atas empat lapisan, yaitu lapisan mukosa, lapisan submukosa, lapisan tulang rawan, dan lapisan adventitia. Lapisan mukosa terdiri atas sel-sel epitel berlapis semu bersilia yang mengandung sel goblet penghasil lendir (mucus). Silia dan lendir berfungsi menyaring debu atau kotoran yang masuk. Lapisan submukosa terdiri atas jaringan ikat. Lapisan tulang rawan terdiri atas kurang lebih 18 tulang
rawan berbentuk huruf C. Lapisan adventitia terdiri atas jaringan ikat.

5. Bronkus


Trakea bercabang menjadi dua bronkus yang masing-masing menuju paru-paru. Di dalam paru-paru, bronkus bercabang-cabang lagi menjadi bronkiolus. Pada ujung-ujung bronkiolus, terdapat sekumpulan kantung udara yang disebut alveolus (jamak: alveoli). Dinding alveoli hanya dilapisi oleh satu lapis epitel pipih yang berfungsi sebagai permukaan respirasi. Di sekitar alveolus terdapat kapiler-kapiler pembuluh darah. Dinding kapiler pembuluh darah tersebut sangat berdekatan dengan alveolus sehingga membentuk membran respirasi yang sangat tipis. Membran yang tipis ini memungkinkan terjadinya difusi antara udara alveolus dan darah pada kapiler-kapiler pembuluh darah. Bronkus, bronkious, dan alveolus membentuk satu struktur yang disebut paru-paru.

Demikianlah macam-macam organ-organ pernapasan pada manusia lengkap dengan penjelasannya. Semoga membantu kamu dalam belajar biologi dan mengerjakan PR/Tugas biologi.

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