Organ/Alat Pernapasan Pada Hewan Vertebrata dan Avertebrata Beserta Fungsinya Lengkap

Organ/Alat Pernapasan Pada Hewan Vertebrata dan Avertebrata Beserta Fungsinya Lengkap - Pada hewan vertebrata dan avertebrata memiliki alat pernapasan tertentu yang berbeda dengan yang lain. Kali ini saya akan membahas tentang organ/alat pernapasan hewan vertebrata, organ pernapasan pada mamalia dan fungsinya, organ pernapasan/respirasi pada avertebrata dan fungsinya. Alat atau organ pernapasan pada hewan vertebrata dan avertebrata memiliki perbedaan karena fungsinya juga berbeda. Untuk lebih jelasnya, yuk simak pembahasannya berikut ini.

Sistem pernapasan pada ikan

Organ Pernapasan Pada Hewan Vertebrata

1. Insang

Berdasarkan letaknya, insang dibedakan menjadi msang luar dan insang dalam. Insang luar terdapat pada larva ikan dan anifibi sedangkan insang dalam terdapat pada ikan dewasa. Insang dalam pada ikan dilindungi oleh tutup insang (operkulum).

2. Paru-Paru

Semua vertebrata yang hidup di darat, termasuk mamalia yang hidup di air, bernapas dengan paru-paru. Semua vertebrata yang bernapas dengan paru-paru memasukkan udara melalui lubang hidung (nares) yang berhubungan dengan langit-langit rongga mulut.

- Paru-Paru Amfibi.
Paru-paru pada amfibi dewasa masih sangat sederhana.. yaitu berupa kantong tipis dengan sedikit lipatan-lipatan membentuk alveoli didalamnya. Luas permukaan respirasinya hanya sekirar 20 cm2 karena struktur paru-paru masih sederhana. Amfibi tidak memiliki leher sehingga paru-paru terletak dekat dengan lingkungan luar ronfgga mulut yang terbuka). Kesederhanaan struktur paru-paru ini menyebabkan kebutuhan oksigen pada tubuhnya tidak tercukupi banya dan paru-paru sehingga menggunakan kulit dan permukaan dinding cavum oris (selaput mulut) sebagai alat bantu pemapasan. Pertukaran gas Ierjadi path dinding alveoli yang penuh dengan anyaman kapiler-kapiler darak Pernapasan melalui kulit itu dapat berlangsung baik di darat maupun di air.

-Paru-Paru Reptilia.
Keadaan paru-paru reptilia sudah lebih baik daripada paru-paru amfibi. Paru-paru reptilia memiliki sekat-sekat pemisah yang tumbuh sebagai lipatan-lipatan pada dinding dalam yang memperluas permukaan respirasi. Bentuk paru-paru tersebut menyesuaikan bentuk tubuhnya, misalnya berbentuk kecil dan memanjang pada ular.

- Paru-Paru Aves.
Paru-paru ayes (burung) terdapat pada ujung bronkeolus, berjumlah sepasang, dan melekat pada dinding punggung rongga dada. Paru-paru dibungkus oleh selaput yang disebut pleura. Paru-parunya bersifat kompak dan penuh dengan pembuluh darah. Secara umum, paru-paru burung berukuran kecil, namun pada burung yang mampu terbang terdapat kantong udara (saccus pneumaticus) yang membantu mencukupi kebutuhan oksigen pada waktu terbang. Paru-paru memiliki struktur yang tersusun dan banyak pembuluh halus atau saluran yang terbuka di kedua ujungnya. Di situlah udara secara terus-menerus bertukar dengan aliran yang searah. Ketika menghirup udara, semua kantong udara dipenuhi. Kantong udara pada bagian posterior (belakang tubuh) diisi dengan udara bersih yang banyak mengandung oksigen, sedangkan kantong udara di bagian anterior (depan tubuh) diisi dengan udara dari paru-paru. Ketika mengembuskan napas, udara keluar dan kantong udara. Alirannya berasal dan kantong udara posterior menuju paru-paru, kemudian dan anterior ke luar tubuh melalui bronkus.

- Paru-Paru Mamalia.
Paru-paru pada hewan menyusui memiliki struktur lebih kompleks yang terdiri atas beberapa lobus. Alat pernapasan mamalia yang hidup di air, misalnya lumba-lumba dan paus,juga paru-paru. Namun, pada trakea (batang tenggorok) mamalia tersebut terdapa.sekat-sekat yang mencegah air masuk ke dalam paru-paru. Biasanya, pada waktu hewan itu menarik napas, air ikut masuk. Tetapi, air terhenti pada sekat pertama, kemudian disemprotkan ke luar melalui lubang hidung.Paru-paru pada manusia merupakan organ lembut, padat, dan sangat elastis. Sebagian besar jaringannya tersusun dan berjuta-juta kantong udara (alveoli; jamak) berukuran mikroskopis seperti setandan buah anggur. Masing-masing dilayani oleh sebuah bronkiolus yang sangat kecil. Jaringan pembuluh kapiler mengelilingi kantong udara (alveolus;tunggal) untuk menyuplai darah melalui arteri paru-paru dan akhimya menyalurkannya pada vena paru-paru.

Organ Pernapasan Pada Hewan Avertebrata

1. Difusi

Pertukaran gas dalam organ pernapasan terjadi karena perbedaan konsentrasi oksigen dan karbon dioksida pada lingkuu an dan sel-sel tubuh. Molekul oksigen dan karbon dioksida yang bergerak dari daerah berkonsentrasi tinggi ke daerah konsentrasi rendah disebut proses difusi. Difusi berlangsung
secara efektif apabila terdapat perbedaan konsentrasi yang sangat tinggi.

Proses difusi dibedakan menjadi difusi sel dan difusi epidermal. Difusi sel terjadi melalui membran sel pada hewan bersel satu. Pada Porifera dan Coelenterata difusi berlangsung melalui membran sel-sel di permukaan tubuhdan selanjutnya ke sel-sel yang letaknya lebih dalam. Difusi epidermal terjadi pada hewan cacing tanah. Pertukaran gas berlangsung melalui kulit luar tubuh (epidermis).

2. Sistem Trakea

Alat pemapasan yang berupa trakea dapat ditemukan serangga. Trakea merupakan suatu pembuluh halus yang berasal dari perrnukaan tubuh, kemudian bercabang-cabang ke seluruh bagian tubuh. Setiap percabangan berakhir dalam sel-sel trakea yang mempunyai perluasan berupa trakeol. Ujung akhir trakeol berisi cairan dan melalui cairan inilah oksigen dan karbon dioksida berfungsi ke dan dari dalam sel-sel jaringan di dekatnya.

Demikianlah pembahasan tentang organ/alat pernapasan pada hewan vertebrata dan avertebrata beserta fungsinya. Semoga bermanfaat untuk kamu dalam belajar sendiri dirumah.

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