Pengertian, Rumus Asas Black dan Kalor Laten Terlengkap

Pengertian, Rumus Asas Black dan Kalor Laten Terlengkap - Pada artikel kali ini, saya akan membahas tentang pengertian asas black, rumus asas black, pengertian kalor laten, rumus kalor laten. Bagaimana cara kamu mencampur dua air yang bersuhu tidak sama, misalnya air dingin dan air panas ? Apa yang terjadi pada suhu campuran keduanya ?.

Cobalah kamu mencampur segelas air es (0 oC) dengan segelas air bersuhu 50 oC. Percampuran dua benda yang suhunya berbeda pertama kali diteliti oleh Joseph Black. Black menyatakan bahwa jika dua benda bersuhu tidak sama disatukan, benda bersuhu rendah akan menyerap kalor, sedangkan benda bersuhu lebih tinggi akan melepas kalor. Pernyataan Black itu dikenal sebagai asas Black.

Jadi pengertian/bunyi asas black adalah jika dua benda bersuhu tidak sama disatukan, benda bersuhu rendah akan menyerap kalor, sedangkan benda bersuhu lebih tinggi akan melepas kalor.

Rumus Asas Black

Dalam bentuk persamaan, asas Black dapat dirumuskan sbb:

Q serap = Q lepas

Q = banyaknya kalor (J atau kkal)

Contoh penerapan asas black dalam kehidupan sehari-hari

1. Penguapan

Tahukah kamu mengapa air dapat menguap? Penguapan adalah peristiwa meninggalkannya molekul-molekul zat dari kelompoknya. Penguapan terjadi pada permukaan zat dan dapat terjadi pada berbagai suhu. Pada saat di rumah, kamu juga dapat mengamati peristiwa penguapan.

Sewaktu memasak air, apa yang terjadi seandainya air itu dipanasi terus-menerus, habiskah air itu? Mengapa? Jadi, setiap penguapan memerlukan kalor. Peristiwa-peristiwa berikut merupakan contoh hasil panguapan, yaitu: pada pembuatan garam, penyulingan, dan terjadinya awan. Penguapan merupakan gejala alam yang banyak manfaatnya. Untuk itu, orang berusaha mencari cara mempercepat proses penguapan.

Pernahkah kamu memerhatikan orang minum segelas minuman panas? Orang itu kadang mengipasi ke permukaan gelas, atau mungkin menuangkan air panas itu ke piring kecil. Kedua cara itu dapat mempercepat penguapan. Selain dengan cara memberi kalor, penguapan dapat dipercepat dengan cara meniupkan udara ke atas zat itu dan memperluas permukaan bidang.

Perlu diketahui, pada dasarnya meniupkan udara merupakan cara untuk mengurangi tekanan udara pada permukaan bidang. Cara-cara tersebut membantu molekul di permukaan cairan untuk melepaskan diri dari ikatan antarmolekul dalam cairan.

2. Pendidihan

Cobalah kamu mengamati proses memasak air. Pada saat air mendidih, apakah suhunya terus naik? Zat cair disebut mendidih, jika pada seluruh bagian zat itu telah terjadi penguapan. Pada saat zat cair mendidih, suhu zat cair tersebut tetap meskipun terus-menerus diberi kalor. Titik didih zat cair yang satu berbeda dengan titik didih zat cair yang lain.

Jika kita akan mendidihkan zat cair, banyaknya kalor yang dibutuhkan bergantung pada banyaknya massa zat cair dan jenis zat cair. Makin besar massa zat cair yang akan kita didihkan, makin besar pula kalor yang dibutuhkan.

Adapun yang dimaksud titik didih normal adalah suhu pada saat zat mendidih pada tekanan 1 atmosfer. Titik didih dipengaruhi oleh tekanan udara. Jika tekanan udara kecil, titik didihnya rendah, demikian pula sebaliknya.

Contohnya jika suatu tempat bertekanan udara 1 atmosfer, di tempat itu air mendidih pada suhu 100 oC. Akan tetapi, jika di tempat lain yang bertekanan udara 72 cmHg (kurang dari 1 atmosfer), air akan mendidih pada suhu kurang dari 100 oC.

3. Peleburan

Kamu dapat pula mencoba perubahan zat padat langsung menjadi zat gas. Jika terdapat kapur barus diberi kalor, maka kapur barus itu akhirnya menjadi hilang. Hilangnya kapur barus merupakan perubahan wujud dari padat menjadi gas.

Berdasarkan dua hal tersebut, dapat disimpulkan bahwa kalor mampu mengubah wujud suatu zat. Pada saat terjadi perubahan wujud zat, tidak terjadi perubahan suhu (suhunya tetap) sebab kalor yang diberikan digunakan oleh zat tersebut untuk mengubah wujudnya.

Pengertian dan Rumus Kalor Laten

Daftar kalor laten beberapa zat


Kalor laten (L) adalah banyaknya kalor yang dibutuhkan oleh suatu zat untuk mengubah wujudnya. Pada kegiatan di atas terjadi dua perubahan, yaitu mencair dan menguap. Kalor yang digunakan mengubah wujud es batu menjadi air disebut kalor cair/lebur (L). Adapun kalor yang digunakan mengubah wujud air menjadi uap air disebut kalor uap (U).

Dalam hal ini kalor lebur dan kalor uap merupakan kalor laten. Oleh karena itu, dalam perubahan
wujud zat berlaku rumus kalor laten yaitu:

Q = m L atau Q = m U

Dengan:
Q = banyaknya kalor (J atau kkal)
m = massa zat (kg)
L = kalor lebur (Jkg-1 atau kkal kg-1)
U = kalor uap (Jkg-1 atau kkal kg-1)

Demikianlah pembahasan tentang pengertian, rumus asas black dan kalor laten lengkap. Semoga materi diatas bermanfaat buat kamu semua.

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