COVID-19 SEMAKIN MENGKHAWATIRKAN, PEMDA BISA APA?



Corona Virus Disease 2019 atau Covid 19 menjadi perbincangan publik dari rumah tangga hingga istana negara. Virus ini telah mewabah ke hampir 210 negara dunia.  Hingga 14 April 2020, total kasus Corona menyentuh angka 1,9 Juta jiwa, dengan lebih dari 119 ribu dinyatakan meninggal dunia. Amerika Serikat dinyatakan  sebagai negara dengan jumlah kasus dan kematian tertinggi didunia, dengan 560 ribu kasus dimana 22 ribu meninggal dunia. Sebagai salah satu negara dengan jumlah penduduk terbesar dunia seperti Amerika Serikat, Indonesia juga perlu mawas diri. Indonesia telah sampai pada angka 4.839 kasus, dengan total kematian mencapai 456 jiwa dan kesembuhan mencapai 426. Istana dicemaskan dengan fluktuasi angka korban kematian dan korban positif corona yang semakin hari semakin meningkat. Instrumen demi instrumen kebijakan ditelurkan, namun tetap saja, belum terlalu optimal signifikansinya. Tentu, Pusat tidak akan optimal dalam mengimplementasikan kebijakannya, jika daerah tidak sinergis dan harmonis dalam menyikapi kehendak pusat. Namun realitasnya, tidak sedikit terjadi kesenjangan antar daerah, alih-alih sinergis, conflict of interest antar daerah karena wabah ini malah menjadi keniscayaan. 

Konsep Otonomi Daerah dan Relevansi Penanganan Wabah di Daerah 


Pemda Provinsi dan/atau Pemda kabupaten kota, merupakan perpanjangan tangan pelaksanaan wewenang pemerintah pusat di daerah (dekonsentrasi) Tetapi, konsep kewenangan daerah tidak hanya sebatas itu, daerah dapat juga secara otonom dalam hal tertentu menentukan nasib sendiri, Konsep ini dikenal dengan konsep desentralisasi. Adapun konsep otonomi daerah itu sendiri adalah “..adalah hak, wewenang, dan kewajiban daerah otonom untuk mengatur dan mengurus sendiri Urusan Pemerintahan dan kepentingan masyarakat setempat dalam sitem NKRI. (Ps.1 angka 6 UU Pemda). 

Urusan pusat yang menjadi urusan dan wewenang pemerintah daerah disebut dengan urusan konkuren cq  urusan pemerintahan wajib (dasar) yakni: pendidikan, kesehatan, PUPR, Perumahaan rakyat, ketentraman, ketertiban umum, dan perlindungan masyarakat; dan sosial. dan urusan pemerintahan pilihan. Sebagaimana diatur didalam UU Pemerintah Daerah. Menurut hemat penulis, situasi wabah hari ini linear jika menggunakan kewenangan pemda dengan prinsip otonomi untuk menyelenggarakan ketentraman…” hingga perlindungan masyarakat dan sosial. 

Pemerintah Daerah Bisa Apa ? 


Problematika didaerah pada bangsa ini memiliki kesamaan, yakni problem kepastian logistik pangan dan logistik kesehatan. APBN pusat dirasa tidak akan optimal jika tidak disinergiskan dengan Anggaran Daerah, baik APBD maupun keuangan daerah diluar APBD. Selain itu, kepastian akses moda transportasi juga perlu untuk menjadi perhatian, agar tidak menjadi conflict of interest antar daerah. sehingga, beberapa hal yang seyogyanya dilakukan pemerintah daerah diantaranya:

Revisi Peraturan Daerah Tentang APBD 


Pasal 4 Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 12/2019 tentang Pengelolaan Keuangan Daerah sebagai ketentuan pelaksana dari UU Nomor 23/2014 Tentang Otonomi Daerah memberikan kewenangan kepada Kepala Daerah sebagai Pemegang Kekuasaan Pengelolaan Keuangan Daerah. Kepala Daerah mempunyai kewenangan untuk melakukan perubahan APBD didalam Perda APBD melalui Rancangan perubahan Perda tersebut bersama dengan DPRD. DPRD bukanlah kekuasaan legislatif seperti dipahami kekuasaan legislatif DPR-RI. DPRD merupakan bagian dari pemerintah daerah (eksekutif) dalam menjalankan aktifitas pemerintahan didaerah bersama kepala daerah. Sehingga, asumsi penulis, perubahan APBD guna mengalokasikan dana khusus menghadapi corona ini segera dapat dirampungkan tanpa perlu menunggu waktu berlarut-larut layaknya Pusat, antara Presiden dan DPR-RI. Revisi Perda APBD sangat penting, karena hanya Perda yang dapat mengatur mengenai perubahan anggaran APBD yang salah satu konsennya untuk anggaran khusus masyarakat didaerah selama wabah berlangsung.dan tidak dikenal aturan lain seperti peraturan kepala daerah untuk merevisi APBD. Karena fungsi Perkada hanya sebagai aturan teknis daripada Perda APBD itu sendiri. Dari Revisi perda inilah kemudian, didapati legalitas sekaligus legitimasi Daerah untuk memberikan kepastian logistik pangan, dan logisitik kesehatan didaerahnya, dan dana tidak terduga lainnya, disamping daerah juga menyalurkan bantuan dari Pusat. 

Manifestasi Kehendak Pusat melalui Peraturan Kepala Daerah maupun Instrumen Kebijakan Daerah Lainnya 


Perppu Nomor 1/2020 sebagai ketentuan legislasi penanganan corona, yang selanjutnya melahirkan banyak instrumen regulasi pelaksana, Mulai dari Peraturan Menteri dan Keputusan Menteri, hingga Maklumat Polri yang kesemuaya menunjukan eksistensi negara dalam penangan an Covid-19. Tetapi, semua ketentuan tersebut sulit pengejahwantahannya apabila daerah tidak mengakomodasi ketentuan itu melalui instrumen regulatifnya, Seperti; Perda, Peraturan Kepala daerah Provinsi dan/atau Kabupaten Kota, hal tersebut dirasa perlu dalam rangka menciptakan kepastian hukum dan legalisasi ketentuan pusat untuk dapat diterapkan di daerah agar tidak terjadi kekosongan hukum ditataran teknis prosedural kehendak pusat, dalam bentuk apapun.

Kepastian Akses Masuk-Keluar Transportasi 


UU Lalu Lintas Angkutan Jalan seyogyanya menjadi pedoman bagi kepala daerah untuk mengambil sikap menutup akses keluar masuk masyarakat. Pemahaman mengenai ketentuan wewenang pengaturan Jalan desa, Jalan Kota, Jalan lintas Provinsi dan Jalan yang hanya menjadi wewenang Pusat harus dipahami secara komprehensif oleh steikh holder daerah khususnya kepala daerah. Tidak sampai disitu, ketentuan sikap tersebut harus diberikan payung hukumnya melalui peraturan kepala daerah baik Peraturan Gubernur, Peraturan Bupati dan/atau Peraturan Walikota. Sebagai ikhtiar menekan angka persebaran corona didaerah diakibatkan akses mobilisasi warga, khususnya pada musim mudik puasa-mudik raya yang tidak lama lagi berlangsung.

Oleh : Kurnia Saleh., SH 

Konsultan Hukum & Akademisi Hukum Tata Negara | Mahasiswa S2 Magister Ilmu Hukum FH Universitas Sriwijaya 

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